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Back in 1902 the Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) Stephenson of the Midland Railway Co. was asked to design an express locomotive capable of competing with other rail companies. The 4-4-0 engine design was already established so after consultation with marine sources the Midland 4-4-0 Compound  engine was the result with  5 prototypes being  built, with 2 ‘low pressure’ outside cylinders and a 3rd.‘high pressure’  cylinder inside the frame Despite some starting problems these 5 proved so good his successor  CME Deeley corrected the starting regulator problem and ordered 40 more and these 45 engines, numbered 1000-1044 proved their worth.  Particularly during the first world war frequently hauling 12-14 coach troop trains, and continued  in service even after the Midland Rly’s. 1923 merger, to become the London Midland & Scottish (LMS),  until the early 1950s. Not a bad record!
After the 1923 merger, to become the London, Midland & Scottish Rly. (LMS), CME Fowler was so impressed with the performance and economy of these engines he ordered a further 190 to be built, Nos.1045-1199 (?) then 900-939 There is some confusion whether he had the driving wheels reduced from 7ft. to 6ft.9in. for this order or if it came later when, after 40 (100?) had been built, he made a major design change by moving the Driver and all his controls from the right  to the left side of the engine. If he was so impressed with the Compounds it seems a costly change to make, these engines in fact, remained the LMS express engines until the early 1930’s.when CME Stanier was appointed. He immediately made his mark with first the Class 8 freight engine then the 2 cylinder mixed traffic ‘Black 5’ and then the 3 & 4 cylinder ‘Jubilee and Princess’ express engines. As good as these Stanier engines were the Compounds although usually relegated to ‘assisting or local duties’ were kept “in service” until about 1960 before being withdrawn and scrapped. Only this, the first one, Midland Compound No. 1000, being preserved Comp1038.jpg

No. 1000 still working a ‘local’ passenger train in 1952 and after restoration in 1956.


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Read somewhere that the compounds were considered the way to go as they used the steam twice so two bites of the cherry - in theory. It also mentioned the starting problems, but I've also read some ordinary puffers, especially the two cylinder jobs also had trouble starting, my cousin who's a driver at Midland Railway at Butterley has a good chunter when the won't start. I presume the three & four cylinder jobs were easier to start as less chance of stopping on a dead spot...    

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  • 2 weeks later...

   One of the LMS Compounds working a 'local' passenger train, probably to Newark & Lincoln whilst alongside is a Stanier designed 'Jubilee' leaving for London.


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